英俄外交聲明的批評話語語言學分析--以俄前間諜中毒案為例

來源: www.485230.live 作者:vicky 發布時間:2020-02-22 論文字數:51477字
論文編號: sb2020020214405729398 論文語言:中文 論文類型:碩士畢業論文
本文是一篇語言學論文,本文擬從批評話語分析視角出發,采用定量和定性方法,對選自英俄外交部官網的 2018年 3 月至 2019 年 2 月有關俄前間諜中毒案的英俄外交聲明文本進行分析。
本文一篇語言學論文,本文運用費爾克勞夫三維分析模型并依據韓禮德的系統功能語法,在描寫階段,通過分析語篇的分類系統、及物系統等方面探討英俄外交聲明語篇的形式結構特征方面的差異,在闡釋階段,通過分析語篇的情態、銜接等方面探討英俄外交聲明語篇與其各自交際過程的關系之間的差異,并基于語言成分的使用差異進一步探討英俄外交聲明中各自使用的語言策略,揭示外交聲明參與者之間的權力關系及話語中隱藏的意識形態意義,在解釋階段,結合外交聲明產生的社會歷史語境,對文本的社會實踐過程進行解釋。外交話語作為政治話語的一種,對外交話語進行批評話語分析,有助于提高人們的語言意識和批評性語篇的閱讀能力, 為同領域的其他語篇研究以及后續相關研究提供理論參考。 
Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Research Background
Critical  discourse  analysis  (hereinafter  referred  to  as  CDA)  has  become  a  hot research  method  of  linguistic  study  in  recent  years.  CDA  derives  from  critical linguistics, a discipline related with the methods of discourse analysis, which sprang up  in  the  early  1980s.  Critical  linguistics  holds  that  discourse  is  the  result  of  the speaker’s choice of language structures and ideological meaning. Its methodology is mainly based on systemic-functional linguistics represented by M.A.K. Halliday and other  linguistic  theories.  It  focuses  on  the  investigation  of  social  and  historical background  of  text  production,  distribution  and  consumption,  and  highlights  the discovery and analysis of the ideological meanings in discourse that people often take for granted and they tend to neglect, so as to enable people to reexamine them.
As a kind of political discourse, diplomatic statement is a document in which the government  expresses  its  position  and  policy  on  an  international  issue,  an international  event  or  foreign  affairs.  It  generally  includes  government  statement, foreign  ministry  statement,  foreign  ministry  spokesperson  statement,  etc.  The diplomatic  statement  contains  abundant  information  that  can  well  reflect  the relationship between language, power and ideology, and the analysis of it will give us a better understanding of the diplomatic position of the big powers and the diplomatic situation in the modern world.
The Salisbury Attack refers to the incident that Sergei Skripal, the former Russian double agent, suffered from neurotoxin in Salisbury Country, England on March 4, 2018.  This  diplomatic  crisis  between  Russia  and  Britain  has  become  ever  more violent, and the disputes between the two countries around the case unfold one after another. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office issues a statement accusing Russia is the winner behind the incident, while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation believes that Britain aims to launch an anti-Russian propaganda war with political purposes.  
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1.2 Purpose and Significance
This paper tries to adopt Fairclough’s three-dimensional model to analyze Russian and British diplomatic statements related with Salisbury Attack, so as to illustrate the relation  among  language,  power  and  ideology.  The  purposes  of  this  paper  are  as follows:
First,  based  on  the  theoretical  framework  of  systemic-functional  grammar represented by Halliday, this paper tries to seek out the language strategies used by the  both  parties  and  how  the  two  parties  choose  words  and  expressions  to  puzzle audience’s objective judgment and achieve their hidden political purpose.
Second,  diplomatic  statements  infiltrate  ideology  into  audience  through  using different language strategies. This  paper attempts to reveal the role of discourse in spreading ideology and maintaining social relations.
Last, given a better  understanding of the  methods of disseminating ideology in diplomatic  statements,  readers  can  identify  the  hidden  ideological  meanings  and hierarchy of power.
For these reasons, to conduct a research on diplomatic statement texts is of great theoretical and practical value. 
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Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis
Critical discourse analysis is a new branch of modern linguistics, it focuses on the influence  of  ideology  on  discourses  and  the  effect  of  discourse  to  ideology  by  the analysis  of  external  linguistic  forms.  Since  its  birth,  critical  discourse  analysis  has combined many disciplines, and developed its analytical theories and methodology, established  a  comprehensive  and  multidisciplinary  theoretical  study  and  discourse practice,  which  gives  people  a  better  understanding  of  the  relationship  between language and society.
2.1.1 The Origin and Development of CDA
Critical discourse analysis has developed gradually in Linguistics and expanded to other fields with the publishing of the book Language and Control by Fowler et al. (1979).
Table 2-1 Status of Research on Diplomatic Discourse from 2016 to 2019
Critical  discourse  analysis  has  boomed  in  the  past  three  decades,  and  a  lot  of Western  linguists  have  devoted  themselves  in  the  development  of  CDA.  The  main representatives include R. Fowler, N. Fairclough, T.A. van Dijk and R. Wodak.
R.  Fowler,  one  of  the  founders  of  CDA,  puts  forward  the  concept  of  critical linguistics in his book Language and control (1979), and elaborates on its theoretical sources, systemic-functional grammar and related analytical tools. R. Fowler (1986) explores  how  to  apply  specific  analytical  methods  to  news  discourse  analysis,  and holds that the focus of critical linguistics is to make critical analysis of the production, internal structure and overall framework of a text①. R. Fowler (1991) regards news as a product of the social and political world in Language in the News, and examines the important  role  of  language  in  mediating  reality  from  the  perspective  of  critical linguistics②. 
N.  Fairclough  (1989)  puts  forward  the  famous  three-dimensional  model  for linguistic study, which regards text as the product of discourse practice. The process of  discourse  practice  consists  of  three  parts:  the  production,  distribution  and consumption  of  text,  which  are  determined  by  the  specific  conditions  of  social practice③.  N.  Fairclough  (2000)  reveals  the  true  political  significance  of  the  Labor Party by investigating a series of political texts and rhetoric use in the texts④. Based on his theory, N. Fairclough (2006) studies the narrative of globalization in terms of social construction in Language and Globalzation and holds that it plays a conductive role in the real process of globalization.
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2.2  Research  on  Diplomatic  Discourse  from  the  Perspective  of CDA
The research and analysis of critical discourse at home and abroad mainly involve the field of political discourse. As a kind of political discourse, diplomatic discourse has  gradually  attracted  the  attention  of  linguists  in  recent  years.  The  studies  on diplomatic statements include news reports on specific international events, speeches by state leaders, official statements, etc. The main purpose of diplomatic discourse is to  disseminate  the  speaker’s  ideology  to  the  audience,  and  this  process  involves various  linguistic  strategies.  This  part  mainly  introduces  the  studies  of  diplomatic discourse analysis from the perspective of CDA at home and aboard. 
2.2.1 Study on Diplomatic Discourse at Home and Aboard
Recently, foreign scholars focus more on applying critical discourse analysis into political fields and further promote the development of discourse practice. This part mainly  introduces  the  research  status  of  diplomatic  discourse  at  home  and  abroad from the insight of critical discourse analysis, which is in terms of studies on news reports on specific international events, speeches by state leaders, official statements, etc.
Table 3-1Examples of Material Process
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework ................................................ 18
3.1 Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Grammar ................................... 18
3.1.1 Ideational Function .......................................... 19
3.1.2 Interpersonal Function .................................... 23
Chapter  Four  Critical  Discourse  Analysis  of  British  and  Russian  Diplomatic Statements .......................... 30
4.1 Study on Linguistic Elements in British and Russian Diplomatic Statements.............30
4.1.1 Explanation of British and Russian Social Background ....................... 31
4.1.2 Description of Linguistic Elements ............................. 33
Chapter Five Conclusions ....................................... 83
5.1 Main Findings .................................... 83
5.2 Implications of the study ................................... 85
5.3 Limitation and Suggestions............................. 86

Chapter Four Critical Discourse Analysis of British and Russian Diplomatic Statements

4.1 Study on Linguistic Elements in British and Russian Diplomatic Statements
Critical  linguists  hold  that  discourse  is  the  result  of  the  producer’s  conscious choice  in  both  formal  structure  and  ideology.  They  hold  that  discourse  is  a  social space in which two basic social processes occur simultaneously: social cognition and expression  and  social  interaction.  Therefore,  the  analysis  of  discourse  can  not  be separated from the analysis of the process of discourse practice itself and the social context in which it occurs. Fairclough (1992) summarized it as a discussion of the complex relationship among text, discursive practice and social practice①. 
Based on the crucial influence of social practice on text, the introduction of the English and Russian social background of the selected texts will be put in the first part, so that readers can better understand this thesis. Because the speakers of diplomatic statements  are  under  certain  social  context  and  obtain  specific  position  and responsibilities, they will publish texts of diplomatic statement with special linguistic strategies to conceal political purposes and achieve latent goals. The description and interpretation parts will put forward for later analysis.
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Chapter Five Conclusions

5.1 Main Findings
Power plays a significant role in modern society. Not only political power, but also  discourse  power  makes  great  difference  in  social  construction,  which  can  be indicated  in  diplomatic  statements.  The  texts  of  British  and  Russian  diplomatic statement  represent  the  national  interests  and  positions  of  the  two  states,  so  the linguistic elements selected in the texts are used to permeate the ideology of the two parties.  Since  CDA  discusses  the  latent  ideology  and  social  power  behind  the discourse, this paper selects it as analytical framework. Meanwhile, the thesis regards Fairclough’s  three-dimensional  model  as  the  analytical  framework  to  explore  the difference  of  linguistic  elements  and  linguistic  strategies  in  British  and  Russian diplomatic statements. The main findings are follows: 
  First, Halliday’s three meta-functions play a great role in diplomatic statements. The system of classification, transitivity, modality and cohesion are all used by the spokesperson as the main linguistic strategies to gain support from the audience at home and aboard and achieve political goals. 
Second, on the level of linguistic elements, the ideology reflected and constructed in linguistic strategies will be concluded as follows.
As for the system of classification, there are obvious differences in the keywords choice  concerning  the  Salisbury  incident  in  the  texts  of  diplomatic  declarations between  Britain  and  Russia.  Britain  and  Russia  use  different  keywords  to  express their different national positions and attitudes towards the international events. The British  side  talks  less  about  the  victim  of  the  case,  and  advocates  expanding  the situation, whereas the Russian side refuses to acknowledge it.
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